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One patch is actually at the coast, near Buna. Ruxton also recognised that he was studying ash sequences on only one side of the volcano, and that sequences elsewhere, deposited by different winds, might be quite different. These removals of personal identity would lead to unpleasant disputes several decades later, and to disaffection among those European relatives of the deceased who wanted to visit grave sites in what had become an unkempt and deteriorating park (Marsh 2005–08; Speer 2005–14). The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative Schwimmer himself was sensitive to such doubts when, in another context, he wrote that: The history of anthropology is a history of questions asked by westerners and related to western intellectual preoccupations. Did these stories carry with them accounts of the overwhelming fierceness of the devastating eruption at Mount Victory together with a derived understanding of ‘the origin of death, warfare, [and] fire’? Both of the active volcanoes of Lamington and Victory are at the south-western margin of a ‘Solomon Sea’ plate where there is no active subduction (Figure 9.9). Some of the European bodies had never been found and the Anglican mission had buried its own European dead, so who was actually buried in the cemetery? This included reporting separately on the volcanic geology of Mount Victory, results that complemented those obtained earlier by the CSIRO scientists (Smith 1969, 1981). Mount Lamington is a 1,680 meter-high volcano in Papua New Guinea. What are the name of the people who live in the central mountains of Papua New Guinea, at a latitude of six degrees below the equator and at a mean altitude of about 1500 meters above sea level? Lamington lies near the northern edge of Papua, New Guinea and had no known history of volcanic activity prior to January 1951, when an ash plume and … New educational and political opportunities were being provided from this time onwards for Papua New Guineans at both institutions (Nelson 1972). The fine ash of the 1951 eruption was barely represented in Ruxton’s study, much of it having drifted onto forest canopies and ‘lost’ in the underlying leaf litter of the forest floor. Science, in fact, underpinned a fourth explanation for the disaster, but one that was held by only a minority of Orokaiva. The conclusion needs to be qualified, however, because Ruxton did not address the possibility of younger ages for smaller eruptions whose deposits are more difficult to recognise, including those from the minor, well-formed, satellite volcanoes on the western side of the Lamington cone (Figure 9.2). Numbers have been added to this adapted figure for only three of the 11 units as follows: 1) a ‘recent tholoid’ shown in red and referring to a) the central lava dome created within the summit crater in 1951–52 and including talus on its north-eastern side (the stippled area represents cloud and vapour from the still-hot tholoid seen on aerial photographs) and b) a ‘recent tholoid’ in the bottom left-hand corner that must be presumed to be older than the central 1951 lava dome; 2) coulées or thick, bulbous lava flows; 3) old lava domes and satellite/adventive pyroclastic cones. Other important developments in Port Moresby included the start, also in 1964, of an Administration College and, in 1965, the creation of the University of Papua New Guinea (UPNG) (Meek 1982). These last points are the reasons why Dr Fisher (1957) included Lamington and Victory in Part V of the Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes of the World including Solfatara Fields published by the International Volcanological Association in 1957. In so doing, Schwimmer (1977, 319) concluded that the mission’s critics were ‘pursuing obscurantist and reprehensible power politics’. Figure 9.4. The road turns abruptly northwards, avoiding a river ‘double crossing’ at that point, and splitting into different parts near plantation blocks at Sangara, one road swinging southwards past the old, now disused, wartime airstrip that had operated during the disaster relief phase in 1951. This is an important point as there is meteorological evidence from Port Moresby that winds higher than about 5,000 metres above sea level blow east to west all year round in Papua (Figure 9.3). Deeper structures, such as any seismically inactive subducted slabs, could not be determined by the survey. 2). Before it erupted in 1951, when Upoto was a boy, the people living on the mountain did not realize it was a volcano. Arek had died of cancer on 22 November 1973, just eight days earlier. Numerous artificial explosions were fired from ships at sea to the north-east (in the Solomon Sea) and south-west (in the Coral Sea), and the seismic signals were recorded at the land-based stations. 1976). None of the thousands of villagers killed by the Lamington eruption of 1951 were buried in the Mount Lamington Memorial Cemetery. First, the ash cover was not well exposed because of the extensive tropical vegetation. Vegetation is now extensive on the outer flanks of the volcano, but less so on the lava dome and amphitheatre walls. Further, one of the first UPNG graduates in geology in 1977 was Benjamin Talai, a man from the Duke of York Islands east of Rabaul, who would later become the first Papua New Guinean to lead the RVO (Talai 2006). 1976). Mount Lamington, Owen Stanley Range, New Guinea Ranges, Papua New Guinea Mountain weather forecast for 1680m. These were likely to have been areas burnt regularly by the Orokaiva who appear to have abandoned this practice post-eruption, after which the area became invaded by secondary forest growth. Volcanological Analysis and New Eruptions, 8. However, according to Schwimmer, white planters and public servants claimed that the mission had been promulgating the false wrath of God explanation, and that now the mission was promoting the ‘geophysical’ explanation simply to counter that earlier criticism from the planters and public servants. The Orokaiva would have believed that they had violated an agreement and, accordingly, that the volcanic disaster was a reciprocating punishment. Arrows show net plate motion relative to the Australian Plate. Jim Sinclair, a kiap who would later become well known as an author and historian of Papua New Guinea, went to the Northern District at the end of 1952 just before Christmas: Popondetta was not an impressive station … the crude emergency accommodation hastily constructed [after the 1951 disaster] … to house the great influx of relief workers still stood. Paulus Arek proposed in 1969 that an all-parties committee be established in Port Moresby to consider the constitutional development of a future self-governing country. The one on the left is by Maine Winny (Johnston 1995, 12). Resettlement of parts of the devastated area had started already. The fourth explanation is strictly geophysical: that volcanoes operate through natural laws that are quite unrelated to magical and religious beliefs. The broad structure of the PUB as an area of crustal thickening was confirmed, but the thickness of the crust beneath Lamington was found to be only 8 kilometres. (Schwimmer 1969, 5). Rather, the earthquake zone here runs along or near the Owen Stanley Range including the large, near-vertical, Owen Stanley Fault and Timena Fault (Davies 1971). The deposit is in general normally graded and consists of lapilli and coarse ash fining upward into fine ash. Mt Lamington (Papua New Guinea) volcano: uncertain report about smoke and ash emission According to setyoufreenews.com, Mt Lamington volcano in New Guinea is showing some signs of becoming active. They were from the Research School of Pacific Studies (RSPAS) at ANU in Canberra, and they established in 1961 a New Guinea Research Unit (NGRU) (May 2006). Many reports on the Orokaiva were published in the NGRU Bulletin series (e.g. They had built a recovery village at Irihambo, but were ordered to leave it some years later because it was found to be situated on Crown land intended for the settlement of Australian ex-servicemen. One of the six volcanoes was Manam Island, which broke out in eruption in May 1974 after a period of eight years of relative inactivity. Figure 9.10. The Next 10 Days: Disaster Relief and Controversy, 7. Even the volcanologist Tony Taylor had departed after two years of fieldwork in the area. The deposit and the tree blow-down features demonstrate many similarities with those of blast-generated PDCs of Bezymianny in 1956 and Mount St. Helens in 1980. Local ‘micro-national’ or ‘sub-national’ political movements emerged in different parts of the Territory, some of them espousing elements of separatism and local independence. This drawing accompanied a short version of the legend written in Orokaiva by Joel Oreba (1976, 5). It also demonstrated how volcanic ash, if correctly identified as originating from Mount Lamington, could be deposited well to the west of the volcano from the high-level east to west winds even during the ‘north-west’ season of low-level winds (Figure 9.3). Ruxton in 1967 also visited an archaeological site at Kosipe about 140 kilometres west of Mount Lamington and 135 kilometres north of Port Moresby. Ruxton (1966a) concluded, tentatively, that Lamington may not have had a significant explosive eruption for about a thousand years before the one in 1951. Eruption of Mt Lamington, Papua New Guinea, 1951 [picture] / Albert Speer Call Number PIC/9275/1-62 LOC Album 1085 A Created/Published 1951 or 1952 Extent 1 album (62 photographs) : b&w ; 23.5 x 34 cm. An advance team, led by Dr C.S. The district commissioner of the Northern District at this time of political change was David R.M. The volcanoes related to any one subduction zone form long lines or ‘arcs’ parallel to the convergent plate boundary itself. There would be, nevertheless, a considerable amount of further interest paid to Lamington volcano over the next 20 years—up to the time of self-government for Papua and New Guinea in 1973—and, further, to 1975 when Papua New Guinea achieved independence from Australian rule. Wodak 1969; Schwimmer 1969; Horne 1974a; Oreba 1976; Newton 1985; Johnston 1995; Radford 2012; Larsen 2017; see Figure 9.7). 5. Its chief minister was Michael Somare, leader of the clearly nationalistic Pangu Pati. This is in contrast to winds below 5,000 metres, which change from north-westerly during the ‘wet’ monsoonal season to south-easterly during the ‘dry’ season of south-east trade winds. [1964b] 2010b; Keig et al. This survey work was part of a regional geological program aimed at covering the whole of the Territory at 1:250,000-scale as a basis for mineral and petroleum exploration and resource assessment (e.g. 9. +61 2 6125 5111 These volcanic features appeared to have been built against a larger, parabolic, south-east facing crater wall. The third village studied by Schwimmer was Hohorita, population 348, which was made up of survivors from the now decimated Sangara people. This may define a zone of weakness on this part of the volcano where small eruptions can break out in different places, rather than from the summit crater alone. Lead-Up to Independence. Attributing the volcanic disaster to generally articulated ‘geophysical’ causes is acceptable in a modern, secular-rationalist society, but were those causes well understood and, more particularly, to what extent are those causes understood even today? Mild vapour emission is taking place from the top of the dome where there are small lava spines. Important anthropological fieldwork of disaster management significance was undertaken among the mountain Orokaiva during the 1960s by Dutch-born Erik Schwimmer, an anthropologist based at the University of Oregon in the US. The eruption of Mt Lamington on Sunday 21 January 1951 was the greatest natural disaster on Australian-administered territory of Papua New Guinea. Davies and Smith 1971). He was ordered to come inland and blow up the mountain’ (Opeba 1977, 228). The survey methodology adopted by CSIRO was innovative. New aerial photography had to be obtained. The temperatures of gas- and vapour-emitting areas known as fumaroles were measured fairly regularly, and condensates of gases were collected at times (Crick 1973). Items 62 View Catalogue Agreement NNX16AC86A, Is ADS down? No unusual evidence was found, however, that Lamington was about to produce another eruption of the type seen on 21 January 1951. The Anglican mission itself put forward that scientific view after the 1951 eruption, which seems a rational and sensible step to take. Collection of photographs and colour slides from the 1951 eruption of Mt Lamington, Papua New Guinea. Water vapour is seen rising from the summit of Mount Sumbiripa, previously known as Mount Lamington. Mt Wilhelm is the highest but what is the second highest mountain in PNG? The full sequence, however, could not be observed and there had been some observable local thickening and redistribution of the ash. Kururi’s name, then, can be added to the list of volcanoes in Papua known to have been historically active up to 1951—Victory, Goropu, Lamington and Kururi. He was sympathetic with the nationalistic views of the Pangu Pati but became a member of Julius Chan’s People’s Progress Party. These were so-called ‘Wadati-Benioff’ earthquake zones, named after the seismologists who first identified them. Figure 9.9. Volcanologist John Best continued running the volcanological observatory in Rabaul in Taylor’s absence, and was heavily involved with Taylor and new recruit Max A. Reynolds in assessing several eruptions at other volcanoes during 1953–57, none of which, however, included Lamington. A third explanation listed by Schwimmer is the now familiar one: that the wrath of the Christian but Jehovah-like God, rather than the anger of Sumbiripa, had caused the disaster because of transgressions by the Orokaiva. Both are high, asymmetric, volcanic cones that have breached ‘crater’ walls facing the sea, together with fans of volcanic debris deposited preferentially in the same direction. The catastrophic explosion of Mount Lamington volcano, Papua New Guinea on January 21, 1951 produced a devastating pyroclastic density current (PDC) that knocked down dense tropical rainforest over an area of 230 km 2 and killed approximately 3000 people. Denham 1969). The age of Mount Lamington as a whole is probably less than 110,000 years—most likely within the range of 80–100,000 years. How many of these new elite Orokaiva asked why the all-knowing and powerful Europeans had not interpreted correctly the geophysical early warning signs of the catastrophic eruption? It involved conducting integrated land resource surveys rapidly, and it adopted a multidisciplinary approach aimed at assessing land use potential for agricultural and other developmental purposes by using the skills of a range of scientists—mainly geomorphologists, pedologists, plant ecologists, botanists, foresters and climatologists (Christian 1958; Christian and Stewart 1964; Blake and Paijmans 1973; Keig et al. 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