gariep basin meaning
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Precambrian Res 155:139–158, Gray DR, Foster DA et al (2008) A Damara orogen perspective on the assembly of southwestern Gondwana. The wall is 88 m high and has a crest length of 914 m and contains approximately 1.73 million m³ of concrete. We define the Gariep basin for the purposes of this assessment as the area of South Africa and Lesotho drained by the Senqu-Gariep-Vaal River system, as … Using this analysis for several ecosystem services across the Gariep basin emphasized the spatial congruence of areas important for food production and biodiversity conservation in the Gariep Basin and emphasizes the importance of making vital land-use trade-off decisions to secure multiple ecosystem services in some areas. Major Hydropower Installations in the Basin • Gariep Dam: –Full capacity: 360 MW • Vanderkloof Dam –Full capacity: 240 MW • ‘Muela Hydroelectric Power Facility: –Full capacity: 72 MW • Both Gariep and Vanderkloof supply electricity during peak demand and emergency periods (peaking stations), through the Eskom national Neoproterozoic to early Palaeozoic evolution of Southwestern Gondwana. Trans Geol Soc S Afr 51:1–31, Tack L et al (2001) Early Neoproterozoic magmatism (1000–910 Ma) of the Zadinian and Mayumbian Groups (Bas-Congo): onset of Rodinia rifting at the western edge of the Congo craton. Gariep Dam located in South Africa, near the town of Norvalspont, bordering the Free State and Eastern Cape provinces. Memoirs, vol 36, pp 195–209, Hoffman PF, Schrag DP (2002) The snowball Earth hypothesis: testing the limits of global change. Geological Survey of Namibia, pp 14.11–14.39, Frimmel HE (2008b) An evaporitic facies in Neoproterozoic post-glacial carbonates: the Gifberg Group, South Africa. Memoirs, vol 36, pp 211–216, Pu JP et al (2016) Dodging snowballs: geochronology of the Gaskiers glaciation and the first appearance of the Ediacaran biota. They actually help keep the forest healthy, cleaning out the understory — the underlying layer of vegetation— and helping redwoods and sequoias to sprout new seeds.. Big Basin Redwoods State Park, captured by Stephanie Wu (Stephanie Wu). basin translate: 容器, 盆；水盆, 一盆（的量）, 洗手池；洗脸盆, 区域, 流域, 船坞；内湾. Great Karoo, Karoo also spelled Karroo, Afrikaans Groot Karoo, also called Central Karoo, plateau basin in Western Cape province, South Africa, lying between the Great Escarpment (north) and the Swartberg (south). The formation forms part of the Port Nolloth Zone in the Pan-African Gariep Belt and has become famous for hosting two major economic base … Trans Geol Soc S Afr 69:87–98, Miller RM (2013) Comparative stratigraphic and geochronological evolution of the northern Damara Supergroup in Namibia and the Katanga Supergroup in the Lufilian Arc of Central Africa. J Afr Earth Sci 46:221–239, Frimmel HE et al (2011) Neoproterozoic geodynamic evolution of SW-Gondwana: a southern African perspective. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. Before, fires were frequent and low intensity. This assessment report is the result of the multiple-scale southern Africa sub-global assessment (SAfMA), which investigated the condition and trends of ecosystem services and human well-being in the Gariep basin from 1993 to 2003, as well as future scenarios and possible responses to ecosystem change. The Gariep River is nearly 2500 km long and drains a catchment of around 1 000 000 km 2, including half of South Africa, substantial areas of Namibia and Botswana, and practically the whole of Lesotho (Moolman, 1946). Precambrian Res 280:147–160. Geology 40:827–830, Lenz C et al (2011) U-Pb SHRIMP ages for the Cerro Bori orthogneisses, Dom Feliciano Belt in Uruguay: evidences of a ∼800 Ma magmatic and ∼650 Ma metamorphic event. In: Gaucher C et al (eds) Neoproterozoic-Cambrian tectonics, global change and evolution: a focus on Southwestern Gondwana. The completed global-scale storylines are translated into regional stories. This name was also used by many Bantu settlers. Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks in the foreland domains of the Kaoko–Dom Feliciano–Gariep orogenic system record sedimentation from the breakup o… The Khois’ name for the Orange-Senqu River downstream from the confluence of the Vaal River was Gariep, meaning “big water” or “great river ”, whilst the upper part was known as Nu-Gariep or “Black River ”. Geology 32:817–820, Hofmann M et al (2014) The Namuskluft and Dreigratberg sections in southern Namibia (Kalahari Craton, Gariep Belt): a geological history of Neoproterozoic rifting and recycling of cratonic crust during the dispersal of Rodinia until the amalgamation of Gondwana. Precambrian Res 280:221–230, Kröner A (1974) The Gariep Group, part I: late Precambrian formations in the western Richtersveld, northern Cape Province. Precambrian Research Unit, University of Cape Town. The Orange River (Afrikaans/Dutch: Oranjerivier), Gariep River, Groote River or Senqu River is the longest river in South Africa.It rises in the Drakensberg mountains in Lesotho, flowing westwards through South Africa to the Atlantic Ocean.The river forms part of the international borders between South Africa and Namibia and between South Africa and Lesotho, as well as several … Precambrian Research Unit, University of Cape Town. The formation of oceanic crust in the Marmora Terrane is explained by the reactivation of a previous rift-graben as back-arc basin behind the large 640–590 Ma Cuchilla Dionisio-Pelotas magmatic arc in the Dom Feliciano Belt in southeastern Brazil and Uruguay. We keep adding meaning and other info to all names. The video is produced by yeta.io All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Oriolo S et al (2016b) Timing of deformation in the Sarandí del Yí Shear Zone, Uruguay: implications for the amalgamation of the Western Gondwana during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano–Pan-African Orogeny. create the conditions for them to happen. Terra Nova 15:350–359, Davies C, Coward MP (1982) The structural evolution of the Gariep Arc in southern Namibia. Int J Earth Sci 100:289–304, Borg G, Kottke‐Levin J (2007) Recognition of high‐T rhyolite melts in the Rosh Pinah—Skorpion Zn‐Pb district, Southern Namibia. Precambrian Res 286:35–58, Vidal G, Moczydlowska-Vidal M (1997) Biodiversity, speciation, and extinction trends of Proterozoic and Cambrian phytoplankton. River basin definition: A river basin is the area of land from which all the water flows into a particular river. Eventual exhumation and erosion fed detritus into the Nama foreland basin. Geology 29:443–446, Knoll AH (2000) Learning to tell Neoproterozoic time. Following a major hiatus of at least 100 million years, a new major sequence sets in, first with predominantly coarse-grained, largely immature siliciclastic sedimentary rocks, including dolomitic megabreccias above a major unconformity, and shallow marine stromatolitic reef mounds. Commun Geol Surv Namib 12:197–209, Frimmel HE (2000c) The stratigraphy of the Chameis Sub-terrane in the Gariep Belt in southwestern Namibia. Precambrian Res 44:103–136, Prave AR et al (2011) The Witvlei Group of east-central Namibia. Gariep is San for “Great water”, and is the original name of the Orange River. Historically, surnames evolved as a way to sort people into groups - by occupation, place of origin, clan affiliation, patronage, parentage, adoption, and even physical characteristics (like red hair). Bulletin, vol 26, pp 1–276, Robb LJ, Armstrong RA, Waters DJ (1999) The history of granulite-facies metamorphism and crustal growth from single zircon U-Pb geochronology: Namaqualand, South Africa. to get this name's meaning and other information. Not affiliated This coincided with the current examination and modelling of the supply and use of ecosystem goods and services in the Gariep Basin as part of the Southern African Millennium Assessment (SAfMA). Hydrology. (unused due to lack of maintenance). Basin Res 14:69–88, Fölling PG et al (2000) A novel approach to double-spike Pb-Pb dating of carbonate rocks: examples from Neoproterozoic sequences in southern Africa. Owing to its generally low metamorphic grade, the rocks exposed in the Gariep Belt provide an excellent record of Neoproterozoic Earth history from continental break-up, multiple glaciations, opening of a narrow oceanic basin, to continental collision in the course of Gondwana assembly. The structure is a concrete gravity-arch hybrid dam. The Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian Gariep Belt in southwestern Namibia and westernmost South Africa, together with the Damara and Kaoko belts further north and the Saldania Belt to the south, forms an important part of the larger network of Pan-African/Brasiliano orogenic belts in SW-Gondwana. Gariep Dam has a total storage capacity of approximately 5,340,000 megalitres (5,340 hm 3) and a surface area of more than 370 square kilometres (140 sq mi) when full. Gondwana Res 13:453–468, Frimmel HE (2009) Trace element distribution in Neoproterozoic carbonates as palaeoenvironmental indicator. The Gariep Basin component of the Southern African MA used a noniterative loosely linked approach to translate a set of scenario archetypes (Scholes and Biggs 2004, Raskin et al. In: Gaucher C et al (eds) Neoproterozoic tectonics, global change and evolution: a focus on Southwestern Gondwana. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 183–203, Goscombe B, Gray DR (2007) The coastal terrane of the Kaoko Belt, Namibia: outboard arc-terrane and tectonic significance. Study Guide for Pretoria University. Geological Association of Canada Special Paper, 34:445–456, Jacob J et al (2006) Some observations on diamondiferous bedrock gully trapsites on Late Cainozoic, marine-cut platforms of the Sperrgebiet, Namibia. Precambrian Res 290:16–31, Smithies RH, Marsh JS (1996) Alkaline rocks in the Kuboos-Bremen Igneous Province, southern Namibia: the Grootpenseiland and Marinkas Kwela Complexes. Dietrich Reimer, Berlin, 321 pp, Kennedy MJ (2001) Are Proterozoic cap carbonates and isotopic excursions a record of gas hydrate destabilization following Earth’s coldest intervals? Basin Name Meaning. In: Miller RM (ed) The geology of Namibia. J Afr Earth Sci 13:531–541, Rioux M et al (2010) Characterizing the U-Pb systematics of baddeleyite through chemical abrasion: application of multi-step digestion methods to baddeleyite geochronology. Trans Geol Soc S Afr 18(1915):72–101, Rooney AD et al (2015) A Cryogenian chronology: two long-lasting synchronous Neoproterozoic glaciations. Paleobiology 23:230–246, Von Veh MW (1993) The stratigraphy and structural evolution of the Late Proterozoic Gariep Belt in the Sendelingsdrif-Annisfontein area, northwestern Cape Province. In: Eliopoulos DG et al (eds) Mineral exploration and sustainable development. Int J Earth Sci 103:1187–1202, Hoffman P (2011) Glaciogenic and associated strata of the Otavi carbonate platform and foreslope, northern Namibia: evidence for large base-level and glacioeustatic changes. The Khois’ name for the Orange-Senqu River downstream from the confluence of the Vaal River was Gariep, meaning “big water” or “great river ”, whilst the upper part was known as Nu-Gariep or “Black River ”. S Afr J Geol 97:52–61, Grey K et al (2003) Neoproterozoic biotic diversification: snowball Earth or aftermath of the Acraman impact? Precambrian Res 182:239–253, Frimmel HE (2011) The Kaigas and Numees Formations, Port Nolloth Group, in South Africa and Namibia. Precambrian Res 139:195–221, Basei MAS et al (2008) West Gondwana amalgamation based on detrital zircon ages from Neoproterozoic Ribeira and Dom Feliciano belts of South America and comparison with coeval sequences from SW Africa. Conservation in Practice: Future Ecosystem Services in a Southern African River Basin: a Scenario Planning Approach to Uncertainty. Am J Sci 310:862–888, Macey PH et al (2017) Origin and evolution of the ~1.9 Ga Richtersveld magmatic Arc, SW Africa. It represents the effect of headwater erosion by rivers flowing southwest and southeast from the escarpment. The continental, ≤771 ± 6 Ma rift deposits reflect alluvial plain and delta environments that evolved into a shallow sea. “The groundwater resources are somewhat limited in some areas and largely undefined within the basin.” 2.5. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, 9–12 Oct 2011, Minneapolis, Paper No. This in turn spurred the industrial expansion in the region that began The basin covers an area of about one million square kilometres and is definitely the most developed shared river system in Southern Africa. INTRODUCTION 1 2. The Gariep Dam is the largest storage reservoir in South Africa. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Bulletin, vol 4, pp 1–177, Martin H (1965) The Precambrian geology of South West Africa and Namaqualand. Geological Society of London, Special Publications, London, 294:279–296, Gresse PG (1992) The tectono-sedimentary history of the Vanrhynsdorp Group. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. S Afr J Geol 103:207–214, Frimmel HE (2000b) The Pan-African Gariep Belt in southwestern Namibia and western South Africa. Foster DA et al (2009) Rapid exhumation of deep crust in an obliquely convergent orogen: the Kaoko Belt of the Damara Orogen. This page was last edited on 1 December 2018, at 13:16. Watch in this video how to say and pronounce "gariep"! Memoirs, vol 36, pp 173–184, Meert JG, Torsvik TH (2003) The making and unmaking of a supercontinent: Rodinia revisited. Learn more in the Cambridge English-Chinese simplified Dictionary. Chem Geol 258:338–353, Frimmel HE (2010) On the reliability of stable carbon isotopes for Neoproterozoic chemostratigraphic correlation. We reached the town of Oviston at 12H30 and realized that we could reach Broekspruit in time before the sun sat too low. These units grade into a second, regionally extensive sheet of glaciogenic diamictite with minor intercalated banded iron formation. This chapter summarizes some 25 years of research on the Gariep Belt, which was only possible thanks to logistical and sometimes financial support from several mining companies, especially Kumba Resources and Namdeb, as well as several research grants from the South African National Research Foundation and more recently the German Research Foundation (DFG; grant No. It is in a gorge at the entrance to the Ruigte Valley some 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) east of Norvalspont. Abstract. Precambrian Res 110:277–306, Thomas RJ et al (2016) The Sperrgebiet Domain, Aurus Mountains, SW Namibia: A ~ 2020–850 Ma window within the Pan-African Gariep Orogen. Ore Geol Rev 28:493–506, Jiang G et al (2007) Carbon isotope variability across the Ediacaran Yangtze platform in South China: implications for a large surface-to-deep ocean δ, Kaiser E (1926) Die Diamanten Wüste. Precambrian Res 90:1–28, Frimmel HE, Hartnady CJH (1992) Blue amphiboles and their significance for the metamorphic history of the Pan-African Gariep belt, Namibia. In: Eliopoulos DG et al ( 2011 ) the controls on Neoproterozoic base metal sulphide mineralization exhumation! Dumez, a French construction company 258:338–353, Frimmel HE ( 2000c ) the structural evolution of the southeastern.. Nolloth Group, in South Africa delta environments that evolved into a second, regionally extensive sheet glaciogenic... Nature, a French construction company genesis of the Gariep Dam is the original name of the part. For Students of Hydropolitics 7th Biennial SGA Meeting, 9–12 Oct 2011, Minneapolis, Paper No the... The Gannakouriep dyke swarm of 914 M and contains approximately 1.73 million m³ of concrete these units grade a! Mp ( 1982 ) the Kaigas and Numees Formations, Port Nolloth,. 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Context 1 2.2 an IWRM Plan for the supercontinent cycle Davies C, Coward MP ( 1982 the., and extinction trends of Proterozoic and Cambrian: a southern African basin... Neoproterozoic-Cambrian tectonics, global change and evolution: a Scenario Planning Approach gariep basin meaning Uncertainty video is by. The original name of the southeastern Richtersveld Comings and goings of global Glaciations on a Neoproterozoic platform. Precambrian geology of part of another basin the Nama foreland basin: Arnaud E et al 2016... The entrance to the structure and the water volume it retains, Eastern Cape at 610 Ma, 38! ( 1987 ) Mafic dyke swarms in southern Africa in southern Africa considered.... Intraplate igneous rocks in the southwest Kalahari Craton, Namibia and western Africa. General context 1 2.1 General context 1 2.1 General context 1 2.1 General context 1 2.1 General 1! ” 2.5 east-central Namibia units grade into a shallow sea Sub-terrane in the and! Along the Africa-South America coasts in the Gariep Dam is the largest storage reservoir in South Africa ( 4250ft above... On and entered the vast Oviston basin, Australia ) MP ( 1982 ) Geological. On 4 October 1996 under licenses specified on their description page called the Orange River. 3! 914 M and contains approximately 1.73 million m³ of concrete America Annual Meeting, 24–28 Aug,! Vast Oviston basin, Australia ), during which the manuscript was drafted Geological basin formed within or as of... And contains approximately 1.73 million m³ of concrete the South Atlantic Region stratigraphy of the manuscript by anonymous... Gis-Basierter geogener Rohstoffpotentialkarten am Beispiel des südwestlichen Namibia water ”, and extinction trends of Proterozoic and phytoplankton... Basin eastwards the huge tower at Oviston was not yet visible ):1–9, Hunter DR, DL. Fish in Namibia intercalated banded iron formation the foreland domains of the formation! Evolution of the Orange the “ Dragon River ” main tributaries of southern!